Slovakia is a parliamentary democracy. State power originates from citizens who exercise it directly by participating in national elections. The three branches of political power-executive, legislative, and judicial are collaborative in nature and monitor each other’s functions. The National Council of the Slovak Republic, the Government, and the President are the supreme bodies of state power of the Slovak Republic.
|Official name:||Slovak Republic (orig. Slovenská republika) (SR)|
|Establishment date:||1st January 1993|
|Political system:||Parliamentary Democracy (150-seat unicameral, delegates are elected for 4-year term)|
|President:||Ivan Gašparovič, elected for 5-year term|
|Prime Minister:||Iveta Radičová, political party SDKÚ-DS|
The National Council of the Slovak Republic seated in Bratislava is the country’s sole constitutional and legislative body. Members of the National Council of the Slovak Republic are elected in general, equal, and direct elections by secret ballot. The National Council has 150 members elected to serve a four-year term. All citizens who are of 18 years of age or older are eligible to vote. A candidate for the member of the National Council must be a citizen of the Slovak Republic and at least of 21 years of age. The National Council passes laws, approves state budget, considers and approves the Constitution, and monitors the governmental activities. The Speaker and the Deputy Speakers preside over the National Council while Parliamentary work is carried out mainly in committees.
The President is the Slovak Republic’s chief (head) of state. The President represents the country both inwardly and outwardly and through his decisions ensures the proper functioning of constitutional authorities. The President is elected by popular vote in direct elections by secret ballot to a five-year term. Ivan Gasparovic, the current President, was elected to the position in the second round of the presidential elections on April 17, 2004 and in 2009 he was elected for second time.
The Government of the Slovak Republic is the supreme body of the Executive. It consists of the Prime Minister who is the head of government and government ministers. A new government is formed after parliamentary elections. The winning parties form a coalition while the political parties with the minor party representation in Parliament form an opposition. The current structure of coalition in Slovakia includes SDKÚ-DS (Slovak Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic Party), SaS, KDH (Christian Democratic Movement), Most-Híd. The members of the opposition are Direction (Smer) and Slovak National Party (SNS).
The President of the Slovak Republic holds the power to appoint and recall the prime minister. Iveta Radičová (SDKÚ) is the current Prime Minister of Slovakia. Upon recommendation of the Prime Minister, the President of the Slovak Republic appoints and recalls other members of the Government and entrusts them with the management of ministries. The Government is accountable for the execution of its duties to the National Council of the Slovak Republic. If the National Council passes a vote of no confidence in the Government, the Government must resign.
The court system of the Slovak Republic consists of general courts (district courts, regional courts, and the Supreme Court) and military courts.
The Constitutional Court with its seat in Kosice is an independent judicial body and is not a part of the general courts system.
Military courts (three military district courts and the Higher Military Court) handle disputes of military personnel.
Citizens of the Slovak Republic have the right to appeal to the European Court for Human Rights seated in Strasburg, France.
The General Prosecutor’s Office of the Slovak Republic is an independent state authority protecting the rights and legally protected interests of natural persons, legal persons, and the state.